Heat a large heavy-bottomed Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Add the olive oil and onion to the pot and stir well. Cook the onion for 2-3 minutes, stirring frequently. Add the chopped carrots and stir well to incorporate with the onion. Continue to cook the carrot and onion for 2-3 minutes. Reduce heat to medium and add the minced garlic, salt, pepper, peanut butter, miso paste, cumin, and chili powder to the pot and stir to combine with the carrot and onion; cook for 1 minute, stirring constantly to prevent burning.
Add the beans and vegetable or chicken broth to the pot and stir to combine. Increase heat to high and bring to a low boil. Reduce heat to low and simmer, covered with the lid cracked, for approximately 30 minutes, or until carrots are tender.
Add the Spinach at the end - cook until wilted. If soup is too thick, add additional broth until you reach desired thickness. On the other hand, if the soup isn’t thick enough, continue to cook uncovered until thickened.
Remove pot from heat and ladle into the desired number of bowls. Garnish with chopped peanuts and thinly sliced radish.